The Data Protection Bill 2021

Section

CHAPTER X
PENALTIES AND COMPENSATION

57 Penalties for contravening certain provisions of (***) Act.
 

(1)Where the data fiduciary contravenes any of the following provisions, namely:-

(a) obligation to take prompt and appropriate action in response to a data (***) breach under section 25;
(b) failure to register with the Authority under sub-section (2) of section 26;
(c)obligation to undertake a data protection impact assessment by a significant data fiduciary under section 27;
(d)obligation to conduct a data audit by a significant data fiduciary under section 29;or
(e)appointment of a data protection officer by a significant data fiduciary under section 30,

it shall be liable to (***)such penalty(***) as may be prescribed (***), not exceeding five crore rupees or two percent of its total worldwide turnover of the preceding financial year whichever is higher

(2)Where a data fiduciary contravenes any of the following provisions, namely:—
 

(a) processing of personal data in violation of the provisions of Chapter II or Chapter III;
(b) processing of personal data of children in violation of the provisions of Chapter IV;
(c) failure to adhere to security safeguards as per section 24;or
(d) transfer of personal data outside India in violation of the provisions of Chapter VII,

it shall be liable to (***) such penalty(***) as may be prescribed (***) not exceeding fifteen crore rupees or four per cent. of its total worldwide turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher.

(3) For the purposes of this section, (***)

(a) the expression "total worldwide turnover" means the gross amount of revenue recognised in the profit and loss account or any other equivalent statement, as applicable, from the sale, supply or distribution of goods or services or on account of services rendered, or both, and where such revenue is generated within India and outside India.

(b) it is hereby clarified that "total worldwide turnover" in relation to a data fiduciary is the total worldwide turnover of the data fiduciary and the total worldwide turnover of any group entity of the data fiduciary where such turnover of a group entity arises as a direct result of the processing activities of the data fiduciary, having regard to factors, including

(i) the (***) activities of the data fiduciary and the group entity are aligned in relation to the processing and use of data;

(ii) there exist a relationship between the data fiduciary and the group entity specifically in relation to the processing activity undertaken by the data fiduciary; and

(iii) the degree of control cxercisecd by the group entity over the data fiduciary or vice-versa, as the case may be.

(c) where any of the (***) provisions referred to in this section has been contravened by the State, the maximum penalty shall not exceed five crore rupees under sub-section (I), and fifteen crore rupees under sub-section (2), respectively.

58 Penalty for failure to comply with data principal requests under Chapter V.

Where, any data fiduciary, without any reasonable explanation, fails to comply with any request made by a data principal under Chapter V, such data fiduciary shall be liable to a penalty of five thousand rupees for each day during which such default continues, subject to a maximum of ten lakh rupees in case of significant data fiduciaries and five lakh rupees in other cases.

59 Penalty for failure to furnish report, returns, information, etc.

 If any data fiduciary, who is required under this Act or the rules or regulations made thereunder, to furnish any report, return or information to the Authority, fails to furnish the same, then such data fiduciary shall be liable to a penalty which shall be ten thousand rupees for each day during which such default continues, subject to a maximum of twenty lakh rupees in case of significant data fiduciaries and five lakh rupees in other cases.

60 Penalty for failure to comply with direction or order issued by Authority.

If any data fiduciary or data processor fails to comply with any directions issued by the Authority under section 51 or order issued by the Authority under section 54,-
(i) such data fiduciary (***) shall be liable to a penalty which may extend to twenty thousand rupees for each day during which such default continues, subject to a maximum of two crore rupees(***); or
(ii) such data processor shall be liable to a penalty which (***) may extend to five thousand rupees for each day during which such default continues, subject to a maximum of fifty lakh rupees.

61 Penalty for contravention where no separate penalty has been provided.

Where any person fails to comply with any provision of this Act or the rules or regulations made thereunder applicable to such person, for which no separate penalty has been provided, then, such person shall be liable to a penalty which may extend to a maximum of one crore rupees in case of significant data fiduciaries, and a maximum of twenty-five lakh rupees in other cases.

62 Right to file complaint or application.

The aggrieved data principal referred to in section 32 may file a complaint to the Authority within such period and in such manner as may be specified by regulations.
(2) The data principal may seek compensation under section 65 by filing an application to the Authority in such form, manner and within such period as may be prescribed.
(3) The Authority may forward the complaint or application filed by the data principal to the Adjudicating Officer for adjudging such complaint or application, as the case may be.

63 Appointment of Adjudicating Officer.

(1)For the purpose of adjudging the penalties under sections 57 to 61or awarding compensation under section 65, the Authority shall appoint such Adjudicating Officers as may be(***) required.
(2) The Central Government shall, having regard to the need to ensure the operational segregation, independence, and neutrality of the adjudication under this Act, prescribe—
(a) the number of Adjudicating Officers to be appointed under sub-section (1);
(b) the manner and terms of appointment of Adjudicating Officers ensuring independence of such officers;
(c) the jurisdiction of Adjudicating Officers; and
(d) such other requirements as (***) may (***) be prescribed.
(3)The Adjudicating Officers shall be persons of ability, integrity and standing, and (***) shall possess such qualifications, specialized knowledge, (***) and (***) adequate (***) professional experience, in the fields of law, cyber and internet laws, information technology law and policy, data protection and related subjects,as may be prescribed.

64 Procedure for adjudication by Adjudicating Officer.

(1) No penalty shall be imposed under this Chapter, except after an inquiry made in such manner as may be prescribed, and the data fiduciary or data processor or any person, as the case may be, has been given an (***)opportunity of being heard:

Provided that no inquiry under this section shall be initiated except by a complaint made by the Authority.

(2) While holding an inquiry, the Adjudicating Officer shall have the power to summon and enforce the attendance of any person acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the case to give evidence or to produce any document which, in the opinion of the Adjudicating Officer, may be useful for or relevant to the subject matter of the inquiry.
(3) If, on the conclusion of such inquiry, the Adjudicating Officer is satisfied that the person has failed to comply with the provisions of this Act or has caused harm to any data principal as a result of any contravention of the provisions of this Act, the Adjudicating Officer may impose such penalty as specified under relevant section.
(4) While deciding whether to impose a penalty under sub-section (3) and in determining the quantum of penalty under sections 57 to 61, the Adjudicating Officer shall have due regard to the guidelines as may be specified by the Authority for determination and imposition of penalty taking into account any of thefollowing factors, namely:—

(a) nature, gravity and duration of violation taking into account the nature, scope and purpose of processing concerned;
(b) number of data principals affected, and the level of harm suffered by them;
(c) intentional or negligent character of the violation;
(d) nature of personal data impacted by the violation;
(e) repetitive nature of the default;
(f) transparency and accountability measures implemented by the data fiduciary or data processor including adherence to any relevant code of practice relating to security safeguards;
(g) action taken by the data fiduciary or data processor to mitigate the harm suffered by data principals; (***) or
(h) any other aggravating or mitigating factors relevant to the circumstances of the case, such as, the amount of disproportionate gain or unfair advantage, wherever quantifiable, made as a result of the default.
 

(5) Any person aggrieved by an order made under this section by the Adjudicating Officer may prefer an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal under section 73.

65 Compensation.

(1) Any data principal who has suffered harm as a result of any violation of any provision under this Act or the rules or regulations made thereunder, by a data fiduciary or a data processor, shall have the right to seek compensation from the data fiduciary or the data processor, as the case may be.
Explanation.—For the removal of doubts, it is hereby clarified that a data processor shall be liable only where it has acted outside or contrary to the instructions of the data fiduciary pursuant to section 31, or where the data processor is found to have acted in a negligent manner, or where the data processor has not incorporated adequate security safeguards under section 24, or where it has violated any provisions of this Act. (***)
(2) (***)
(2)Where there are one or more data principals or any identifiable class of data principals who have suffered harm as a result of any contravention by the same data fiduciary or data processor, (***) a representative applicationmay be instituted on behalf of all such data principals seeking compensation for the harm suffered.
(3)While deciding to award compensation and the amount of compensation under this section, the Adjudicating Officer shall have regard to any of the following factors, namely:—
 

(a) nature, duration and extent of violation of the provisions of the Act, rules (***) or regulations (***) made thereunder;
(b) nature and extent of harm suffered by the data principal;
(c) intentional or negligent character of the violation;
(d) transparency and accountability measures implemented by the data fiduciary or the data processor, as the case may be, including adherence to any relevant code of practice relating to security safeguards;
(e) action taken by the data fiduciary or the data processor, as the case may be, to mitigate the damage suffered by the data principal;
(f) previous history of any, or such violation by the data fiduciary or the data processor, as the case may be;
(g) whether the arrangement between the data fiduciary and data processor contains adequate transparency and accountability measures to safeguard the personal data being processed by the data processor on behalf of the data fiduciary;or
(h) any other aggravating or mitigating factor relevant to the circumstances of the case, such as, the amount of disproportionate gain or unfair advantage, wherever quantifiable, made as a result of the default.
 

(4)Where more than one data fiduciary or data processor, or both a data fiduciary and a data processor are involved in the same processing activity and are found to have caused harm to the data principal, then, each data fiduciary or data processor may be ordered to pay the entire compensation for the harm to ensure effective and speedy compensation to the data principal.
(5) Where a data fiduciary or a data processor has, in accordance with sub-section (4), paid the entire amount of compensation for the harm suffered by the data principal, such data fiduciary or data processor shall be entitled to claim from the other data fiduciaries or data processors, as the case may be, that amount of compensation corresponding to their part of responsibility for the harm caused.
(6)Any person aggrieved by an order made under this section by the Adjudicating Officer may prefer an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal under section 73.
(7)The (***) procedure for hearing of (***) an application under this section shall be such as may be prescribed.

66 Compensation or penalties not to interfere with other punishment.

No compensation awarded, or penalty imposed, under this Act shall prevent the award of compensation or imposition of any other penalty or punishment under this Act or any other law for the time being in force.

67 Recovery of amounts.

(1) The amount of any penalty imposed or compensation awarded under this Act, if not paid, may be recovered as if it were an arrear of land revenue.

(2) All sums realised by way of penalties under this Act shall be credited to the Consolidated Fund of India.